High heels and bunions

Do high heels cause bunions? 

Some types of footwear, and high heels in particular, have taken the blame for bunions but it is not totally clear whether footwear is a causing factor for bunions. 

The available studies that try to answer this question are non-conclusive mainly because it is very difficult to isolate the effect of footwear from other causative factors such as genetic background or ligamentous laxity. 

One recent study concluded that high heels do not cause foot deformation but contribute to more foot pain and callosities. 

Others have shown some evidence in favour of the fact that high heels can be a cause for bunions. So the jury is still out.